the safest rout to Turkey will be the one from Iran, you can go Kish Island, Lengeh harbor, then drive to Van lake in northwest Iran ( it's a long but beautiful road), from van you can enter Turkey easily.
I do not think this is a feasible journey at the present time unless you have fluent language skills, very substantial local knowledge and back-up contacts in several/all of the countries through which you will pass . Local circumstances, regulations and, consequently, personal safety can and do change very quickly indeed. 1.Syria is of course out of the equation. As it is impossible to enter Lebanon from Israel getting to Tripoli via that route is not an option. 2. Any land route involves driving through Saudi Arabia. Although women are now allowed to drive, it is my understanding that even transit visas for the country are difficult to obtain.....and more so for land border crossings. 3. A car ferry operated between Dubai and Iran in the very recent past and may still do so. It is still possible to cross into Turkey from both Iran and Iraq, though I cannot say what documentation you might require nor what difficulties you might encounter en route and/or at the border. I strongly advise you to shelve the idea of driving and make alternative arrangements.